Vermont History







Between January 1749 and October 1764, New Hampshire's Governor Benning Wentworth issued
135 grants for land in what is now known as Vermont. 128 of these grant towns still exist.(see above).

 Hubbardton and Dunbar were the last two grants given on June 15, 1764. 
Each grant's 6 mile by 6 mile location was defined in terms of a corner of an existing grant.
Hubbardton was short changed as there was not quite enough space to squeeze it between
Castleton and Sudbury.  This left no room at all for Dunbar, the town that never was, except on paper. 

Hubbardton was 250 years old in 2014, Sudbury and Orwell celebrate their 250 years in 2013, and
 Castleton was 250 years old in 2012.


Its Southeast corner has an interesting history. Three colonies (MA, NH, & NY) were not sure of their boundaries. 

In 1741 MA hired a surveyor, Richard Hazen, to determine the boundary between  MA and NH.
The result is referred to as
Hazen's Line. Vernon ended up north of that line. 

NY thought its eastern boundary was the Connecticut River. NH thought its western boundary was
 near Lake Champlain.  Although NH Governor gave out many land grants in what is now VT.
NY disputed that. Ethan Allen's Green Mountain Boys were formed to keep the "Yorkers "from
occupying land already granted by the NH Governor.  The King decided in NY's favor. 

Then the Revolutionary War intervened. Vermont declared its independence from New York and formed a Republic of  the disputed territory. The Republic of New Connecticut was proclaimed on January 15, 1777 and was renamed the Republic of Vermont on June 4, 1777.  It lasted until March 4, 1791 when Vermont entered the Union.  It functioned as an independent Republic during the war and until it became the 14th state on March 4, 1791.

Thomas Chittenden was the Governor of the Republic for its 14 years.
He became the first Governor of the State, serving for 8 more years.

Vermont's northern border is the 45th parallel, sort of.  Read about Fort Blunder.

Strangely, the VT NH Border is at the low water mark on the west side of the Connecticut River.  
Therefore NH owns the Connecticut River. Click for more details.

Water borders often use the deepest part. See
Lake Champlain forms about two-thirds of its boundary with New York. 

The western boundary of Vermont follows the deepest channel of the lake from Quebec to the Poultney
 River near West Haven.
 Two-thirds of the lake and all of the large islands are part of Vermont.    

Oddly there were no towns in Vermont named after Ethan, just a furniture company
Ira Allen had three towns named after him: Ira, Irasville, and Irasburgh.

VERMONT: One of the Six New England States




POPULATION in the Year 2000


















New Hampshire





















Rhode Island













Vermont is the smallest New England State  by population and second smallest to Wyoming among all states.  

Did you know that Vermont is the second largest New England State in area, slightly larger than New Hampshire but also larger than Massachusetts and double the size of Connecticut?


Hubbardton is in Rutland County, one of the 14 counties in Vermont. In 1779, Vermont had two counties.The western side of the state was called Bennington County and the eastern side was called Cumberland County.

 In 1781, Cumberland County was broken up into three counties in Vermont plus another county named Washington (not the same as the modern Washington County) that eventually became part of New Hampshire.

Today's Washington County was known as Jefferson County from its creation in 1810 until it was renamed in1814.

More historical detail regarding the formation of the present day counties is found in:

Rutland County is second in area and population.


2000 Population

Square Miles

County Seat


Addison County





Bennington County





Caledonia County



Saint Johnsbury


Chittenden County





Essex County





Franklin County



Saint Albans


Grand Isle County



North Hero


Lamoille County



Hyde Park


Orange County





Orleans County





Rutland County





Washington County





Windham County





Windsor County





Vermont Total





Above areas are land only. State size where water area is included show the following square miles: MA is 44th with 10,555, VT is 45th with 9,615, and NH is 46th with 9,350.

For more info, see more on  Vermont Counties  and  British Colonies.



















The three counties in the northeast  part of Vermont (Caledonia, Essex, and Orleans) are referred to as the Northeast Kingdom, a term coined by George D Aiken.  George David Aiken (August 20, 1892 – November 19, 1984) was an American farmer and politician. A member of the Republican Party, he was the 64th Governor of Vermont (1937–1941) before serving in the United States Senate for 34 years, from 1941 to 1975. 

“He liked being called ‘Governor’ because he liked being the governor more than he liked being the U.S. Senate,” Mrs. Aiken explained. “It wasn’t that he didn’t like being in the Senate, it was that he didn’t like being away from Vermont. He never forgot that he was a Vermonter.” And, she said he never lost touch with the average Vermonter.

Tired from weeks of work, during Senate recesses, she said it wasn’t uncommon for him to come home to Vermont, grab his fishing pole, and head to the Northeast Kingdom.

“The Northeast Kingdom was just one of his favorite places in the world,” Mrs. Aiken said. “He always loved the people up there. He used to say that many of the people didn’t have much of anything, or have big jobs, but they were always happy. They didn’t complain as other people would complain in the same situation. They just made do with what they had. The people up there didn’t put on “airs” and they always welcomed you.”

The Northeast Kingdom is bordered on the east by the Connecticut River and on the west by the Green Mountains. The highest point is Jay Peak, a summit on the main ridge of the Green Mountains, at 3,858 feet (1,176 m). The highest point outside of the Green Mountains is East Mountain in East Haven, with a summit elevation of 3,439 feet (1,048 m).


The area is often referred to by Vermonters simply as "The Kingdom."  The Kingdom encompasses 55 towns and gores, with a land area of 2,027 square miles, about 21% of the state of Vermont.The city of Newport is the only incorporated city in the tri-county area.

The Northeast Kingdom has been listed in the North American and international editions of "1,000 Places to See Before You Die", the New York Times best-selling book by Patricia Schultz. In 2006, the National Geographic Society named the Northeast Kingdom as the most desirable place to visit in the country and the ninth most desirable place to visit in the world.                                                                                

The largest municipalities in the Northeast Kingdom are the towns of St. Johnsbury (population 7,603), Lyndon (5,981), and Derby (4,621), and the city of Newport (4,589).

Visit the oldest art galley in America at St. Johnsbury’s Atheneum.  Shop at Wiley’s General Store in Greensboro, an establishment owned and operated by the same family for four generations.


Vermont was the fourteenth state to be admitted to the union. It was admitted in 1791

The first Vermont Flag, a state militia flag, was created in October, 1803. Vermont's first flag was created with seventeen stripes and seventeen stars in the tradition of the U.S. Flag. The word "VERMONT" was spelled out in upper case letters above the stars and stripes.

Vermont went back to the drawing board and authorized a new design on October 20, 1838. This new design continued to align with that of the U.S. Flag. This new design reduced the number of red and white stripes from seventeen to thirteen. Instead of a star for each state, however, the union contained one large white star on a blue field. Within the confines of the star was displayed the Vermont Coat of Arms. This flag remained as the official state flag until 1919.

Eventually Vermonters began to desire a more unique state flag that would not be so easily confused with the flag of the United States when hanging from a pole. As the idea for a change became more prominent, it was found that the flag authorized in 1838, was not ever really used to any extent and that not many were even aware of its existence. The flag carried by Vermont regiments in the Civil War, the Spanish American War and at the outbreak of World War I was a flag that displayed the Vermont State Coat of Arms on a blue field. This design had customarily been called the Governor's flag. 

And so, in 1919, the third Vermont State Flag was authorized. This third design displayed the Vermont State Coat of Arms on a blue field. This is the Vermont State Flag as we know it today.

Green Mountain Boys Flag, the militia flag of the  Vermont Republic , and the Vermont state flag from 1791 to 1804.  


The second flag of Vermont used from May 1, 1804 to October 19, 1837. On May 1, 1804, the number of U.S. states rose to seventeen, and it was expected that the U.S. flag would change to 17 stars and 17 stripes. In recognition, Vermont adopted what was expected to be the new U.S. flag with the addition of the name "VERMONT" embroidered along the top. The U.S. flag did not change in that way, resulting in the Vermont flag having more stripes than the national flag.



The third flag of Vermont used from October 20, 1837 to May 31, 1923. This Vermont state flag was the current U.S. flag with the multiple stars replaced by a single large star with the Vermont coat of arms (from the seal) within the star. The details of the star were unspecified, and both 5-point and 8-point stars were used with 8-points slightly more common. During the American Civil War, the Spanish American War, and the First World War, the Vermont militia fought under a banner composed of the Coat of arms of Vermont on a blue field. This was essentially the same as the Vermont Governor’s flag, and very similar to the current state flag. Because of confusion between the striped Vermont state flag and the U.S. flag, the design of the Vermont Governor’s flag was adopted as the official state flag on June 1, 1923.

Adopted June 1, 1923  The Vermont state coat of arms on a field of azure.

"Freedom and Unity" is the official motto of the U.S. state of Vermont and the African Nation of Tanzania. The motto was first adopted in 1788 for use on the Great Seal of the Vermont Republic. Ira Allen designed the Vermont seal and is often credited as its author.  Following Vermont's admission to the federal union in 1791, the legislature once more approved the use of the motto for the new state seal. Vermont's first governor, Thomas Chittenden, cited the state motto in his epitaph: "Out of storm and manifold perils rose an enduring state, the home of freedom and unity."


US FLAG (1795 - 1818)


Flew over Fort Mc Henry in Baltimore.   Official Flag when house was built in 1806 in Hubbardton (Hortonia) VT


The Star Spangled Banner: This Flag became the Official United States Flag on May 1st,1795. Two stars were added for the admission of Vermont (the 14th State on March 4th, 1791) and Kentucky (the 15th State on June 1st, 1792, and was to last for 23 years. The five Presidents who served under this flag were; George Washington (1789-1797), John Adams (1797-1801), Thomas Jefferson (1801-1809), James Madison (1809-1817), and James Monroe (1817-1825).

The 15-star, 15-stripe flag was authorized by the Flag Act of January 13, 1794, adding 2 stripes and 2 Stars. The regulation went into effect on May 1, 1795. This flag was the only U.S. Flag to have more than 13 stripes. At the time, the practice of adding stripes (in addition to stars) with the induction of a new state had not yet been discontinued.  It was immortalized in the War of 1812  by Francis Scott Key. 

In Baltimore's preparation for an expected attack on the city, Fort McHenry was made ready to defend the city's harbor. When Major George Armistead expressed desire for a very large flag to fly over the fort, General John S. Stricker and Commodore Joshua Barney placed an order with a prominent Baltimorean flagmaker for two oversized American Flags. The larger of the two flags would be the Great Garrison Flag, the largest battle flag ever flown at the time. The smaller of the two flags would be the Storm Flag, to be more durable and less prone to fouling in inclement weather.  This flag was sewn by local flagmaker Mary Young Pickersgill. George Armistead, the commander of Fort McHenry, specified "a flag so large that the British would have no difficulty seeing it from a distance".  A replica is still flying over Fort McHenry.

The Flag was flown over the fort when 5,000 British soldiers and a fleet of 19 ships attacked Baltimore on September 12, 1814. The bombardment turned to Fort McHenry on the evening of September 13, and continuous shelling occurred for 25 hours under heavy rain. When the British ships were unable to pass the fort and penetrate the harbor, the attack was ended, and on the morning of September 14, when the battered flag still flew above the ramparts, it was clear that Fort McHenry remained in American hands. This revelation was famously captured in poetry by Key, an American lawyer and amateur poet. Being held by the British on a truce ship in the Patapsco River, Key observed the battle from afar. When he saw the Garrison Flag still flying at dawn of the morning of the 14th, he composed a poem he originally titled Defiance of Ft. McHenry retitled The Star-Spangled Banner, and a portion of it would later be adopted as the United States National Anthem. Since its arrival at the Smithsonian, the flag has undergone multiple preservation efforts.   In 1916, President Woodrow Wilson signed an executive order designating “The Star-Spangled Banner” as the national anthem, and in 1931, the US Congress confirmed the decision. Although Key wrote four verses, most people only know the first one.


Entered the Union: March 4, 1791 (14) Capital: Montpelier
State Nicknames: Green Mountain State State Motto: Freedom and Unity
Origin of Name: from the French “vert mont,” meaning “green mountain”
State Flower: Red Clover State Bird: Hermit Thrush
State Animal: Morgan Horse State Tree: Sugar Maple
State Butterfly: Monarch State Flavor: Maple
State Insect: Honey Bee State Fruit: Apple
State Fish: Brook Trout & Walleye Pike State Pie: Apple Pie
State Song: “These Green Mountains" State Gem: Grossular garnet
National Forests: 1 • State Parks: 52
Famous for: Ski Resorts, Maple Syrup, Autumn Splendor
Famous Vermonters: Chester A. Arthur • Calvin Coolidge (Presidents), Orson Bean (actor), George Dewey (admiral), John Dewey (educator), Stephen A. Douglas (politician), Carlton Fisk (baseball), Henry Wells (pioneer entrepreneur - Wells Fargo Co.), Rudy Vallee (band leader)

Many other Symbols of Vermont at:  and and   Also see and 

The state of Vermont has 255 political units, or "places". This includes 237 towns, 9 cities (Burlington,
South Burlington, Rutland, Barre,  Montpelier, Winooski, St Albans,  Newport  &  Vergennes)
unincorporated areas (Averill, Ferdinand, Glastenbury, Lewis, and Somerset.) and 4 gores.
(Avery’s, Buell’s, Warner’s & Warren’s).

Unincorporated towns are those granted charters that the Vermont legislature later revoked due to lack
 of residents. While still technically towns, they have no local government; their affairs are managed by
  a state-appointed supervisor


The town of Vernon is unique as it was initially part of the grant of "Northfield" located on both
 sides of the Connecticut River.  A New Hampshire grant to
"Hinsdale" on both sides of the
 Connecticut River resulted in two Hinsdales due to a change in the dividing line between the colonies
of NH and MA.  This was resolved in 1753.  The
History of Vernon is fascinating
The data below is from and shows 257 “towns”.




Comment on Town


From Massachusetts, but part was re-granted in 1753 as a NH Grant


1779 Vernon became part of Republic of VT At one time Vernon was also called Hinsdale


New  Hampshire Land Grants




From New York


Royalton,  Grand Isle, Bradford, Whitingham


Republic of Vermont




State of Vermont





Flatlanders and Vermonters  Vermont was originally inhabited by the Abenaki and the Iroquois.
In 2005 it had an estimated  population of 623,000. Vermont has the second smallest population.
Wyoming has fewer people.) Vermont has a larger percentage of its population living in communities
of fewer than 2,500 than any other state, so it is the most rural. 

A "Vermonter" is a term reserved for those people actually born in Vermont.  A Flatlander is
 someone not born in Vermont, no matter how long that person has lived in the state.  Flatlanders
 are also referred to as "Turkeys".   I will always be a "Buckeye", as I was born in Ohio and I am a
 legal resident of Florida.The opposite of a Flatlander is a "Woodchuck", a term that is applied,
 sometimes with negative connotations, to a native born Vermonter.

See  and also and also and


I can never be a "Vermonter",  as I was not born in Vermont.  A person is a Vermonter because
 his or her mother happened to be in Vermont on the day that person was born.  Some people
 say: "Thank heavens the Flatlanders outnumber the native Vermonters." 
See: Others  say "The Road to Hell is paved
 with Republicans."  Also see for some excellent very
 humorous stories.

There are appears to be  four classes of people living in Vermont:  Class A .are Vermonters that are
 residents, Class B are Vermonters that are non residents, Class C are Flatlanders that are residents,
 and  Class D are Flatlanders that are non residents.  Act 60 and Act 68 were designed so that Class B
 and Class D almost always pay higher property tax rates for education in Vermont.  It certainly seems
 logical that non residents should pay higher property tax rates for education. It is surprising that Act 68
 has not been amended to provide relief to Class B.

  Vermont made national headlines in 1998. A Flatlander tried to run for Senate under the
 Republican Party, and lost. Jack McMullen, a one-year resident of Vermont, tried to win the
 Republican nomination to run against Senator Leahy for Senate. McMullen, the millionaire, lost
 to Fred Tuttle, then a 79 year old retired farmer. The farmer, with a 10th grade education and a
 spending budget of $201, beat the Harvard educated McMullen, who spent $475,000 on his
 campaign. In the often comical debates, McMullen was exposed as an outsider, a person who
 didn't know the state he was trying to win very well. Tuttle asked him in one debate how to
 pronounce the Vermont town of Calais. McMullen answered it by pronouncing it in the French
 way (cah-lay) instead of how Vermonters say it, (cah-las).

 It was clear McMullen  didn't know the state. For what reason did Tuttle win? The simple fact that
 Tuttle is a native Vermonter, and McMullen a flatlander. McMullen tried to buy his way through the
 campaign, but Vermonters saw through his ideas. When voting time came, Tuttle won 55% of
 the primary vote, and putting the farmer into a Senatorial race. Tuttle's win sent a message
 nationwide, Vermonters would not be bought over by a flatlander, and would much rather have a
 retired farmer in the senate. Surprised bythe win, Tuttle laughed and lamented he would never
 want to move to Washington, D.C. so he urged Vermonters  to vote for Leahy. Tuttle's job was
 done, and he could go back to his farm.
(Fred knew how many teats a cow has! McMullen didn't.
 Do you?
 Also see:  and and and /


14th in union
2 U.S. Presidents
43rd largest state-9,614 square miles
65.8 people per square mile of land
1.24 million acres of farmland
78% of Vermont’s land is forest
State Animal: Morgan Horse
State Beverage: Milk State Motto: “Freedom and Unity” State Pie: Apple
State Butterfly: Monarch State Flower: Red Clover State Tree: Sugar Maple
Montpelier, with 7,900 people, is the smallest state capital in America
It is also the only state capital in the United States without a McDonalds
Vermont is one of four states that does not allow billboard advertising
16 awesome ski resorts, one of the largest number per state in the country
Vermont has more covered bridges per square mile than any other state
Currently, the three most popular Ben and Jerry’s ice cream flavors are:
Cherry Garcia, Chocolate Chip Cookie Dough, Chocolate Fudge Brownie
Dairy farmers produce 300 million gallons of milk each year
Vermont is also the country’s largest producer of maple syrup
Vermont’s highest peak, Mt. Mansfield, is 4,393 ft. tall
Vermont’s 77th governor Jim Douglas
36 state
52 state


Name Known for Birthplace
Sherman Adams Governor of VT East Dover 
George Aiken Governor of VT and US Senator from VT Dummerston
Chester Alan Arthur  21st U.S. President Fairfield
Orson Bean Actor Burlington
Calvin Coolidge 30th U.S. President Plymouth
Thomas Davenport Inventor Williamstown
John Deere Inventor of "The plow that broke the plains"  Rutland
George Dewey Admiral Montpelier
John Dewey , Philosopher and educational reformer Burlington
Stephen A. Douglas US Senator, elected in Illinois Brandon
James Fisk Financial speculator Bennington
Wilbur Fisk Clergyman and educator Guilford
Ralph E. Flanders US Senator from VT Barnet
Richard Morris Hunt Architect Brattleboro
William Morris Hunt Painter Bratleboro 
Jim Jeffords US Senator and US Representative from VT Rutland 
Patrick Leahy US Senator from VT Montpelier 
Justin Morrill US Senator from VT Strafford
Elisha Graves Otis Founder of Otis Elevator Company Halifax
Moses Pendleton Choreographer Lyndonville
Patty Sheehan Golfer Middlebury
Joseph Smith Founder of Latter Day Saint movement, Sharon
Horace A. Tabor Silver king Holland
Ernest Thompson Actor and writer Bellows Falls
Rudy Vallee Singer and band leader Island Pond
Henry Wells Pioneer and entrepreneur Thetford 
William G Wilson Founder of Alcoholics Anonymous East Dorset
Brigham Young  President, Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints  Whitingham


Name Known for Birthplace
Ethan Allen Surveyor. Impetuous Leader of The Green Mountain Boys Litchfield, CT
Ira Allen Surveyor. Legislator. Father of University of Vermont Cornwall, CT
Thomas Chittenden Governor of the Republic of VT and then the State of VT East Guilford, CT
Howard Dean Physician. Governor of VT East Hampton, NY 
Robert Frost  Poet who lived in NH and in VT San Francisco, CA 
Hetty Green Witch of Wall Street. The wealthiest woman in the world New Bedford,MA
Madeleine M Kunin Diplomat and politician. Governor of VT  Zurich, Swiss
Bernie Sanders  US Senator from VT Brooklyn, NY
John Stark  Major General in Continental Army and Hero of Bennington    "There are your enemies, the Red Coats and the Tories. They are ours, or this night Molly Stark sleeps a widow!" and  a quote from a July 31, 1809 letter that 81 year old Stark wrote to  decline an invitation to an anniversary reunion of the Battle of Bennington: "Live free or die: Death is not the worst of evils."    Londonderry, NH
Seth Warner Colonel in Continental Army.
Rear Guard Commander at Hubbardton
Roxbury, CT 
Benning Wentworth  King George II's Royal Governor of New Hampshire Portsmouth, NH


    Windsor In 1777, the signers of the Constitution of the Vermont Republic met at Old Constitution House, a tavern at the time, to declare independence from the British Empire (the Vermont Republic would not become a state until 1791). In 1820, it was the state's largest town, a thriving center for trade and agriculture. The community is named for Windsor, Connecticut.   It is known as the birthplace of Vermont, where the state constitution was signed, and acted as the first capital until 1805 when Montpelier became the official state capital.



    Montpelier was not always the capital of Vermont. At first, the Vermont General Assembly met only once every two years. Many of the first meetings were held in Windsor, Bennington, Rutland, and other towns.


    The first permanent settlement began in May 1787, when Colonel Jacob Davis and General Parley Davis arrived from Charlton, Massachusetts. General Davis surveyed the land, while Colonel Davis cleared forest and erected a large log house on the west side of the North Branch of the Winooski River


    It was Colonel Davis who selected the name Montpelier after the French city Montpellier.There was a general enthusiasm for things French as a result of the country's aid during the American Revolution.


    Montpelier is situated on the Winooski River in the central part of the state. It is the smallest population of any capital city in the United States. The population was 7,855 at the 2010 census.  Montpelier was chosen to become the permanent state capital in 1805, after some strenuous debate, due to its central location.


    When the time came to build a new capitol in 1831, the citizens of Montpelier pledged $15,000 to support its construction, preventing the state government from being transferred to any of the other five competing cities. When the second capitol burned down in 1857, there was considerable support for moving the capital to Burlington, but Montpelier carried the day. The third Vermont Statehouse, which still stands, was 25 percent larger than the one it replaced, but still modest by the standards of other states.

    Historical Drawing

    "Montpelier" can be translated to be "bare hill".  The hill behind the capitol building was bare of trees.


    Based on the 2010 census, 115,085 people resided in Vermont's cities, or 18.39% of the state's population.  The state of Vermont has 255 political units, or "places". Of these, the nine listed below are incorporated as cities, and considered municipalities independent of the surrounding town(s) and county(s).

    Rank City County Population Incorporated
    1 Burlington Chittenden 42,417 1864
    2 South Burlington Chittenden 17,904 1971
    3 Rutland Rutland 16,495 1892
    4 Barre Washington 9,052 1895
    5 Montpelier* Washington 7,855 1895
    6 Winoosk Chittenden 7,267 1921
    7 St. Albans* Franklin 6,918 1902
    8 Newport Orleans 4,589 1917
    9 Vergennes Addison 2,588 1788

    Here is another list:


    City Population  


    City Population
    1 Burlington 42,211   26 Rockingham 5,140
    2 Essex 20,724   27 Waterbury Town 5,098
    3 South Burlington 18,743   28 Jericho 5,074
    4 Colchester 17,384   29 Randolph 4,755
    5 Rutland City 15,942   30 Georgia 4,684
    6 Bennington 15,431   31 Castleton 4,612
    7 Brattleboro 11,765   32 Fairfax 4,524
    8 Milton 10,667   33 Derby 4,502
    9 Essex Junction 9,881   34 Hinesburg 4,497
    10 Hartford 9,829   35 Newport City 4,473
    11 Springfield 9,232   36 Stowe 4,411
    12 Williston 9,215   37 Manchester Town 4,313
    13 Barre City 8,837   38 Richmond 4,129
    14 Middlebury 8,545   39 Rutland Town 4,019
    15 Barre Town 7,857   40 Bristol 3,918
    16 Shelburne 7,736   41 Brandon 3,860
    17 Montpelier 7,671   42 Charlotte 3,856
    18 St. Johnsbury 7,523   43 Cambridge Town 3,748
    19 Winooski 7,228   44 Highgate 3,608
    20 St. Albans City 6,860   45 Shaftsbury 3,531
    21 Swanton Town 6,442   46 Johnson Town 3,511
    22 St. Albans Town 6,313   47 Pownal and Windsor 3,476
    23 Northfield Town 6,114   48 Norwich 3,386
    24 Lyndon 5,941   49 Williamstown 3,383
    25 Morristown 5,389   50 Hartland 3,379

    About 25% of Vermont's population reside in Chittenden County.  


    Burlington is the largest city in Vermont. The city is the hub of the Burlington-South Burlington metropolitan area, consisting of the three northwestern Vermont counties of Chittenden, Franklin and Grand Isle and encompassing the cities of Burlington, South Burlington, and Winooski; the towns of Colchester, Essex, and Williston; and the village of Essex Junction.   According to the 2012 U.S. Census estimates, the metro area had an estimated population of 213,701, approximately one third of Vermont's total population. One of the New Hampshire grants, the land that was developed as Burlington was awarded by Governor Benning Wentworth on June 7, 1763 to Samuel Willis and 63 others.   The town was organized in 1785. The town's position on Lake Champlain helped it develop into a port of entry and center for trade, particularly after completion of the Champlain Canal in 1823, the Erie Canal in 1825, and the Chambly Canal in 1843. 


    Read about Lilian Baker Carlisle.  Photogallery\Lilian Baker Carlisle.docx


    The town was originally granted in 1761 by Governor Benning Wentworth as one of the New Hampshire Grants. He named it after John Manners, 3rd Duke of Rutland. The Original Town of Rutland was chartered in 1761 and was later divided into; the Town of Proctor, the Town of West Rutland and the City of Rutland.  T

    The first settlers arrived in 1770 led by Colonel James Mead. James Meade, Rutland's first settler arrived  in Center Rutland in 1769.  . The next year, he and his family were given shelter by members of the Caughnawag Tribe while they finished their log cabin. Meade built saw and gristmills on the falls (Meade's Falls) and ran a ferry on the Otter Creek. He was an ardent defender of the New Hampshire Grants and served as a Colonel in the militia. Mead's falls was an important military site. The 1759 Crown Point Military Road ran by here. General Arthur St. Clair wrote his report after the Battle of Hubbardton in 1777 at Mead's home on the West Proctor Road.

    Fort Ranger was built in 1778 on the bluff northeast of the falls. The first commander was Captain Gideon Brownson.  During the American Revolutionary war Whitcomb's Rangers were stationed there. Whitcomb's Rangers were authorized on October 15, 1776, and formed in November 1776 at Fort Ticonderoga in New York. The unit consisted of two companies of New Hampshire rangers for service with the Continental Army under the command of Benjamin Whitcomb, a veteran of Bedel's Regiment. They saw action at the Battle of Hubbardton, Battle of Bennington and the Battle of Saratoga. They were disbanded on January 1, 1781 at Coos, New Hampshire.

    During the early 1800’s the Rutland area was known for agriculture and for the sheep industry. By the mid 1800’s the development of the marble industry and the arrival of the railroads created an industrial and retail boom which brought many immigrant workers to the Rutland area. Rutland has continued to grow in industry and population to become the largest city in Southern Vermont.

    Old Fort Rutland

    Fort Rutland (above) (1775-1775) - A small stockaded Revolutionary War Fort established in 1775 in present day Rutland in Rutland County, Vermont. One small building used for storage of ammunition and supplies inside the stockade. Abandoned in 1775. Located at the park in downtown Rutland on the SW corner of Rt 7 and West Street.  There is a stone site marker at the intersection of Terrill ST. and North Main St. in Rutland.


    Fort Warren After the loss of Fort Ticonderoga and Mount Independence in July 1777, Fort Warren was built and  became a part of a string of forts built across the state for the defense of Vermont. It was located in Castleton from 1777 to 1779.

    Fort Warren was located one-half mile east of Castleton village, on a natural plateau, with an area of less than three acres. This plateau is about fifteen feet higher than the surrounding meadow in a bend on the north side of Bird's Creek, or Castleton River, and immediately north of the highway leading through Castleton to Rutland, about twenty rods west of the mouth of Mead's Brook, now commonly called Hubbardton Brook. This plateau was connected with a plain to the north, of many acres in extent, by a narrow neck of land on the same level. When the Rutland and Washington Railroad was being built in 1850 this neck of land was dug away to make the dump across the meadow west. A strip of this plateau, thirty or forty feet wide on the north side, and about one-half of the west end of it, were also dug away, for the same purpose, to the depth of eight or ten feet. On the north side of the railroad, and parallel with it, a new channel was cut by the company, at the same time, and Hubbardton Brook was turned into it, which saved building a railroad bridge across the old channel, but necessitated building a bridge for the public travel across the new channel in line of the Hubbardton Road, which crossed the old fort ground. The general features of this old landmark have thus been materially changed; only about one-half of the original plateau, at the east end, is now left as it was in the Revolutionary period.

          The fort was built on land owned by George FOOT on the east and Peter COGSWELL on the west. The stockade enclosed the dwellings of both these men. The entire ground is now owned by John J. LANGDON, and his dwelling-house stands near the eastern boundary of the stockade.




    See History of Roads. Also see


    The first roads in Vermont were Military Roads. In 1759, the British constructed Vermont's first interstate highway, the Crown Point Road.  It was built during the French and Indian War when General Jeffrey Amherst, wished to continue his campaign into Canada. Native Americans had followed the waterways leading from Canada to the coast. One of the most-traveled routes connected Lake Champlain and the Connecticut River following Otter Creek and the Black River.  This footpath led from Amherst’s strategic position at Crown Point, New York directly to an important military post, Fort No. 4 on the Connecticut River.

    STAGECOACHES (in Castleton, Sudbury, Hubbardton and other)

    The Hubbardton Turnpike Company was chartered on November 11, 1802. It allowed immigrants to go north from Castleton to Sudbury.  The turnpike continued in business until November 1851 when its charter was repealed.  This became the present Route 30, and went past the Hyde Manor property in Sudbury and along the east side of Lake Bomoseen and Beebe Pond in Hubbardton. Prior to the building of this turnpike, the only north south road along Beebe Pond was a stagecoach road along the west side of Beebe Pond.


    The Old Inn in Sudbury.  It served as a stage coach stop and hotel through  the 1850's.


    It was located  on  the northeast corner of Rt 30 and Rt 73.


    It was also known as Sawyer’s Stand” 

    Between 1830 and 1845 Dewey's Stand in Hubbardton was a stage coach stop. Read about Joel Beaman of Poultney, Ebenezer B Dewey of Hubbardton and Castleton, and Arunah Hyde of Castleton in Stagecoach History.

    The term "stage" originally referred to the distance between stations on a route, the coach traveling the entire route in "stages," but through metonymy it came to apply to the coach. A fresh set of horses would be staged at the next station, so the coach could continue after a quick stop to rehitch the new horse team. Under this staging system, the resting, watering and feeding of the spent horses would not delay the coach.

    Hezekiah Barnes built Stagecoach Inn in Charlotte in 1783.  Barnes had moved with his family to Charlotte in 1780, and established the inn and a trading post on opposite sides of the main stage route from Montreal to southern New England. Town residents referred to as the Tavern Stand. It was dismantled and rebuilt at the Shelburne Museum in 1949.

    Old Stagecoach Inn in Waterbury. The inn was built in 1826. The inn, or tavern, served as a rest stop for people and horses and as a local meeting house. The railroad across the state had not yet been built, so travel in both directions was by horse-drawn coach over rutted roads, icy and snow covered in winter, and a bottomless sea of mud in the spring. At that time, Main Street (now Route 2) was known as the Winooski Toll Road, a forerunner of revenue raising practices to come. In 1848 the railroad came through, so that stage coach travel survived only in the north/south direction.

    Averill Stand in Wilmington was built in 1787 and was for many years the stagecoach stop between Bennington and Brattleboro on what is now Route 9. The Averill family managed the stagecoach stand on the site hence the name Averill Stand as well as the tavern and Inn.

    The Henry Farm Inn, in Chester is a center hall Federal built in the late 1700's, is located  on the Green Mountain Turnpike. Our well-maintained two hundred year old farmhouse was the first tavern in Chester, when it served as a stagecoach stop on the Green Mountain Turnpike. In colonial times this turnpike ran from Boston to Montreal, but now is a quiet, picturesque dirt road


    The Norwich Inn is a historic, full-service Vermont country inn located in Norwich, near Dartmouth College, just across the river from Hanover, New Hampshire. An Inn has been on the Main Street site since 1797; the current Victorian Structure since 1890. . Built by Colonel Jasper Murdock in 1797, the historic Norwich Inn served as a stagecoach tavern and hostelry for generations of New England travelers. Known variously as the Norwich Hotel, Curtis Hotel, The Union House, and the Newton Inn.  Local legend has it that the Inn and the Town were the inspiration behind the popular TV Show, “Newhart,” which was set in Norwich.  Pictures below from


    New England historic inns | Norwich Inn | Hotel entranceWeekend Getaway packages to Vermont | Norwich Inn | Hotel logo



    Historic inns of Vermont | Norwich Inn | Old photo of the hotelNorwich, Vermont historic inns | Norwich Inn | Historic photo of the innHistoric hotels in Norwich, VT | Norwich Inn | Historic photo of the inn


    Ye Olde Tavern in Manchester claims to be the oldest inn in Vermont. Built by Dorset, Vermont master builder Aaron Sheldon.  It dates back to 1790 when it was known as the Stage coach Inn. It later was known as Lockwood's Tavern.  The marble porch was added in 1850.  In 1860, Steven Thayer purchased the inn  and was known as "Thayer's Hotel".  In 1902, it was the Fairview Hotel and the tavern became headquarters for the movement to license the sale of "spirituous beverages". Two years later, revocation of the license closed the hotel. After the installation of electricity in 1924, Walter Clemons-McGuire re-opened the tavern as a hotel and antique shop.  It’s on the Vermont Register of Historic Places. Ye Old Tavern in Manchester, Vermont


    The Grafton Inn - Grafton, VT, United States

    The Grafton Inn in Grafton  is one of the oldest operating inns in America. 


    It opened its doors in 1801when Enos Lovell, converted  his two-story private home into an inn in 1801.


    The Grafton Inn is the center of town activity.


    It has welcomed luminaries like Ralph Waldo Emerson, Rudyard Kipling, Daniel Webster, Theodore Roosevelt and Woodrow Wilson.


    Was the Grafton Inn and other Inns ... stagecoach stops?


    n 1796, The Dorset Inn in Dorset welcomed its first guests - travelers en route to the major markets in Boston and Albany. After tethering their horses at the Inn's front door, they would pass an evening before the fireplace of the Inn, eat a hearty supper and retire to the four poster bed. It was first first called the Washington Hotel. The Dorset Inn, shown below when it was photographed in 1895.

    Washington Hotel c 1895


    In New York we find:




    Vermont shares a national border of 90 miles with Quebec, Canada.


    Montreal, Canada's 2nd largest city is only 75 miles from Burlington, Vermont.

    Originally calledVille-Marie, or "City of Mary", it is named after Mount Royal, the triple-peaked hill in the heart of the city. The city is on the Island of Montreal,  In 2011 the city had a population of 1,649,519. Current estimates place the metropolitan area of Montreal at 4.1 million.

    State Border
    Alaska 1,538 mi 
    Idaho 45 mi 
    Maine 611 mi 
    Michigan 721 mi 
    Minnesota 547 mi 
    Montana 545 mi 
    New Hampshire 58 mi 
    New York 445 mi 
    North Dakota 310 mi 
    Ohio 146 mi 
    Pennsylvania 42 mi 
    Vermont 90 mi
    Washington 427 mi 


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    This site was last updated 09/24/18