AMERICAN INDIANS IN VERMONT
original inhabitants of the area that is now Vermont included:
There are no federally recognized Indian tribes in Vermont today.
Native Americans were forced to leave Vermont during the 1600's, when
eastern tribes were being displaced by colonial expansion. These tribes
are not extinct, but except for the descendants of Vermont Indians who
hid or assimilated into white society, they do not live in Vermont
anymore. Most tribes that once were native to Vermont ended up on
reservations in Canada.
There are about 3,200 Abenaki living
in Vermont and New Hampshire, without reservations, chiefly
The remaining Abenaki people live in multi-racial towns and
cities across Canada and the U.S.A., mainly in Ontario,
Quebec, New Brunswick, and northern New England. They
are one of the
peoples of northeastern
Most Abenaki crafted dome-shaped,
for housing, though a few preferred oval-shaped long houses.
the winter, the Abenaki lined the inside of their conical
wigwams with bear and deer skins for warmth. The Abenaki
also built long houses similar to those of the Iroquois.
Four Abenaki tribes are located in
Vermont. On April 22, 2011, Vermont officially recognized
two Abenaki tribes: the Nulhegan Band of the Coosuk-Abenaki
and the Elnu Abenaki Tribe. On May 7, 2012, the Abenaki
Nation at Missisquoi and the Koasek Traditional Band of the
Koas Abenaki Nation received recognition by the State of
Vermont. The Nulhegan are located in the
of Vermont, with tribal headquarters in
and the Elnu Abenaki are located in southeastern Vermont
with tribal headquarters in
The chief and political leader of the Nulhegan Band is Don
Stevens. The Sokoki (the
Abenaki Nation at Missisquoi) are located along the
in northwestern Vermont, with tribal headquarters in
Their traditional land is along the river, extending to its
In December 2012, Vermont's
Nulhegan Abanaki Tribe created a tribal forest in the town
This forest was established with assistance from the Vermont
Sierra Club and the Vermont Land Trust. It contains a
hunting camp and maple sugaring facilities which are
administered cooperatively by the Nulhegan. The forest
contains 70 acres.
The St Francis Missisquoi Tribe
owns forest land in the town of
centered around the Brunswick Springs. These springs are
believed to be a sacred traditional religious site of the
Abanaki. Together these Vermont forests are the only Abanaki
held lands outside of the existing reservations in Quebec
and Maine. Brunswick is a
The town was named after Prince
Karl Wilhelm Ferdinand of
The population was 112 at the
Brunswick is home to six
that made the town a popular resort destination in the 19th
century. The land the springs are on is now owned by the
Billy Kidd, apparently an Abanaki,
became the first American male
to win an Olympic medal in Alpine skiing in 1964. He
is a former
alpine ski racer
and a member of the
U.S. Ski Team
from 1962 to 1970. He was born in
but grew up in the 1950s in the ski town of
NEW HAMPSHIRE LAND GRANTS
Between January 1749 and October 1764, New Hampshire's Governor
Benning Wentworth issued
135 grants for land in what is now known as
Vermont. 128 of these grant towns still exist.(see above).
Dunbar were the last two grants given on June 15, 1764.
grant's 6 mile by 6 mile location was defined in terms of a corner of an
Hubbardton was short changed as there was not quite
enough space to squeeze it between
and Sudbury. This left no room at all for Dunbar, the town that
never was, except on paper.
Hubbardton was 250 years old in
2014, Sudbury and Orwell celebrate their 250 years in 2013, and
Castleton was 250 years old in 2012.
THE NAMING OF VERMONT
Vermont was officially adopted as
the new republic's name on June 30, 1777. Two different stories are told
to explain its origin.
Peters claimed that in 1763 he had
christened the land as he stood on top of a high mountain (said to be
Killington, which at the time was one of several peaks named Pisgah)
from which he could see both the Connecticut River and Lake Champlain,
saying, "The new name is Verd-Mont, in token that her mountains and
hills shall be ever green and shall never die." Most historians feel
this story is apocryphal, to say the least. In truth, the name Vermont
probably was given by another.
Young was a Pennsylvania statesman who took a great deal of
interest in the young republic in the mountains. It was he who had
suggested that Pennsylvania's constitution be used as the basis for
Vermont's, and that was done. He also is credited with having suggested
the name Vermont to perpetuate the memory of the Green Mountain Boys,
who were named for the long north-south ridge of mountains that nearly
bisects the state.
The Green Mountain name had been
in use for those mountains for more years than anyone could remember.
Indeed, it was a New York colonial official who, bedeviled by the "boys"
from Bennington, Arlington and the surrounding towns, inadvertently gave
the Green Mountain Boys their name, saying he would drive them all back
to their Green Mountains.
Seven generations of scholars
have pointed out that to be grammatical French, the name should be Les
Monts Verts. But that's an awkward mouthful, whereas "Vermont" is easy
to say and has a pleasant sound -- and Vermont it has remained.
BOUNDARIES AND ITS HISTORY AS A REPUBLIC (1777 - 1791)
Southeast corner has an interesting history.
Three colonies (MA, NH, & NY) were not sure of their boundaries.
In 1741 MA hired a surveyor, Richard Hazen, to determine
the boundary between MA and NH.
The result is referred to as
Hazen's Line. Vernon
ended up north of that line.
NY thought its eastern boundary was
the Connecticut River. NH thought its western boundary was
Champlain. Although NH Governor gave out many land grants in what
is now VT.
NY disputed that. Ethan Allen's Green Mountain Boys were
formed to keep the "Yorkers "from
occupying land already granted by the
NH Governor. The King decided in NY's favor.
Revolutionary War intervened. Vermont declared its independence from New York and formed a
Republic of the disputed territory. The Republic of New Connecticut
was proclaimed on January 15, 1777 and was renamed the Republic of
Vermont on June 4, 1777. It lasted until March 4, 1791 when
Vermont entered the Union. It functioned as an independent Republic
during the war and until it became the 14th state on March
Thomas Chittenden was the Governor of the Republic
for its 14 years.
He became the first Governor of the State, serving for 8 more years.
Vermont's northern border is the 45th
parallel, sort of. Read about
Strangely, the VT
NH Border is at the low water mark on the west side of the Connecticut
Therefore NH owns the Connecticut River.
borders often use the deepest part. See
Lake Champlain forms about
two-thirds of its boundary with New York.
western boundary of Vermont follows the deepest channel of the lake from
Quebec to the Poultney
River near West Haven. Two-thirds of the
lake and all of the large islands are part of Vermont.
Oddly there were
no towns in Vermont named after Ethan, just a furniture company
Ira Allen had three towns
named after him: Ira, Irasville, and Irasburgh.
THE REVOLUTIONARY WAR (1775 -
This war lasted seven years, with effective American victory in October
1781. Two main British armies surrendered to the Continental Army, at
Saratoga in 1777 and Yorktown in 1781, amounting to victory in the war
for the United States. The Second Continental Congress transitioned to
the Congress of the Confederation with the ratification of the Articles
of Confederation earlier in 1781. The Treaty of Paris in 1783 was
ratified by this new national government. This was followed by formal
British abandonment of any claims to the thirteen states with the Treaty
of Paris in 1783
DRED SCOTT DECISION In 1857
On this day in 1857, the United States
Supreme Court issues a decision in the Dred Scott case, affirming the
right of slave owners to take their slaves into the Western territories,
therebynegating the doctrine of popular sovereignty and severely
undermining the platform of the newly created Republican Party.
At the heart of the case was the most
important question of the 1850s: Should slavery be allowed in the West?
As part of the Compromise of 1850, residents of newly created
territories could decide the issue of slavery by vote, a process known
as popular sovereignty. When popular sovereignty was applied in Kansas
in 1854, however, violence erupted. Americans hoped that the Supreme
Court could settle the issue that had eluded a congressional solution.
Dred Scott was a slave whose owner, an army
doctor, had spent time in Illinois, a free state, and Wisconsin, a free
territory at the time of Scott’s residence. The Supreme Court was
stacked in favor of the slave states. Five of the nine justices were
from the South while another, Robert Grier of Pennsylvania, was
staunchly pro-slavery. Chief Justice Roger B. Taney wrote the majority
decision, which was issued on March 6, 1857. The court held that Scott
was not free based on his residence in either Illinois or Wisconsin
because he was not considered a person under the U.S. Constitution–in
the opinion of the justices, black people were not considered citizens
when the Constitution was drafted in 1787. According to Taney, Dred
Scott was the property of his owner, and property could not be taken
from a person without due process of law.
In fact, there were free black citizens of
the United States in 1787, but Taney and the other justices were
attempting to halt further debate on the issue of slavery in the
territories. The decision inflamed regional tensions, which burned for
another four years before exploding into the Civil War.
The CIVIL WAR (1861 - 1865)
The second article in Vermont's constitution,
originally written in 1777, abolished
it the first state to do so. Although its climate was not conducive to
the slave trade, Vermonters were early participants in the
movement. In the
1860 presidential election,
the Green Mountain State gave Republican
Abraham Lincoln a
lopsided victory, 33,808 votes compared to 8,649 for
John Bell, and
John C. Breckinridge.
One historian opined that the heavy rain on election day "reduced the
Republican majority by at least 7,000" votes.
The state sent more than 34,000 to
serve, out of a total population of about 350,000
More than 28,100 Vermonters served in Vermont volunteer
units. Vermont fielded 17 infantry regiments, 1 cavalry
regiment, 3 light artillery batteries, 1
company, 3 companies of sharpshooters, and 2 companies
of frontier cavalry. Instead of replacing units as they
were depleted, Vermont regularly provided recruits to
bring the units in the field back up to normal strength.
Nearly 5,000 others served in
other states' units, in the
United States Army
United States Navy.
54th Massachusetts Volunteer
Infantry included 66
Vermont blacks; a total of 166 black Vermonters served
out of a population of 709 in the state.
Vermonters suffered a total of
1,832 men killed or mortally wounded in battle; another
3,362 died of disease, in prison or from other causes,
for a total loss of 5,194. More than 2,200 Vermonters
were taken prisoner during the war, and 615 of them died
in or as a result of their imprisonment.
Historian Howard Coffin claimed
that the state's most important contribution to the war
was at the
Battle of the Wilderness
where the Vermont Brigade held the crucial intersection
of two roads, the loss of which would have split the
Union forces in half. 1,200 Vermonters died. They also
played a crucial role at the
Battle of Gettysburg,
where, under General
George J. Stannard,
2nd Vermont Brigade
by stepping out of a protected area and firing at the
flank of the attackers.
learning that a regiment of Green Mountain Boys (the 1st
Vermont Infantry) was awaiting orders, said "I want your
Vermont regiments, all of them. I have not forgotten the
Vermont men on the
frontier... I remember the Vermont men in the
War of 1812."
A significant number of
generals hailed from Vermont. Several led Vermont units,
Lewis A. Grant,
John W. Phelps,
William Farrar Smith,
George J. Stannard,
Edwin H. Stoughton,
James M. Warner,
Others served in other states' units or in the
John C. Caldwell,
William B. Hazen,
Ethan Allen Hitchcock,
Charles Edward Hovey,
Joseph A. Mower,
Thomas E. G. Ransom,
Israel B. Richardson,
Benjamin S. Roberts,
George Crockett Strong,
Stewart Van Vliet,
Six Vermonters became
Asa P. Blunt,
George P. Foster,
William W. Henry,
John R. Lewis,
Edward H. Ripley
Charles B. Stoughton.
One native Vermonter,
Chester A. Arthur,
(Arthur was born in
grew up in
upstate New York,
and practiced law in New York City who
President of the United States,
State of New York
during the war.)
In 2017, Vermont became the
first state to formally celebrate the life of John Brown, the radical
abolitionist who was hanged for treason in 1859. See
October 16 is now John Brown's Day in VT in honor of John Brown's attack on
Harpers Ferry October 16, 1859. Brown
is buried on his
North Elba NY. Also see: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Brown_(abolitionist)
Brandon's Stephen A Douglas, the
"Little Giant" Visit his Birthplace, a Museum in
VERMONT and SLAVERY
The newly formed state, which broke away from New York,
abolished slavery outright in its constitution, dated July 8, 1777. After
declaring its independence, Vermont existed as a free republic known as the
Commonwealth of Vermont. It was admitted to the union in 1791, with a state
constitution that also contained the slavery ban. The 1777 constitution entitles
Vermont to claim to be the first U.S. state to have abolished slavery.
was very active in the anti-slavery movement before the Civil War. It is known
that many slaves escaped through Vermont to Canada. Visit Rokeby Museumin
Ferrisburg. Its stunning exhibit chronicles the stories of Simon and Jesse, two
fugitives from slavery who found shelter at Rokeby in the 1830s. Free & Safe
traces their stories from slavery to freedom, introduces the abolitionist
Robinsons who called Rokeby home, and explores the turbulent decades leading up
to the Civil War.
THE BLACK KEYS
ON THE PIANO
Hall, gospel singer Wintley Phipps delivers perhaps the most powerful rendition
of Amazing Grace ever recorded. He says, "A lot of people don't realize
that just about all Negro spirituals are written on the black notes of the
Probably the most famous on this slave scale was written by John Newton, who
used to be the captain of a slave ship, and many believe he heard this melody
that sounds very much like a West African sorrow chant. And it has a haunting,
haunting plaintive quality to it that reaches past your arrogance, past your
pride, and it speaks to that part of you that's in bondage. And we feel it. We
feel it. It's just one of the most amazing melodies in all of human history."
After sharing the noteworthy history of the song, Mr. Phipps delivers a stirring
performance that brings the audience to its feet.
Vermont could have become part of Quebec, Canada.
Between 1780 and 1783 Ethan Allen participated, along with his
brother Ira, Vermont Governor
and others, in
the British governor of
Quebec, that were
ostensibly about prisoner exchanges, but were really about establishing
Vermont as a new British
gaining military protection for its residents.
The Haldimand Affair (also called the
Haldimand or Vermont Negotiations) was a series of
negotiations conducted in the early 1780s (late in the
American Revolutionary War)
the British governor of the
Province of Quebec,
his agents, and several people representing the independent
Vermonters had been battling Indian raids sponsored by the British, as
well as engaging in
a long-running dispute
New York State
over jurisdiction of the territory. At issue was Vermont officially
joining the British. Just as Haldimand offered generous terms for
reunion in 1781, the main British army surrendered at Yorktown, and it
was clear that the United States would achieve independence. Vermont,
surrounded on three sides by American territory, rejected the British
overtures and negotiated terms to eventually enter the United States as
the 14th state in 1791. The secret nature of the negotiations, which
excluded significant portions of Vermont's political power structure,
led to accusations against some of the negotiators, notably
Ethan Allen, who
had appeared before the
as early as September 1778, seeking recognition as an independent
VERMONT: One of the Six New England States
AREA in SQUARE MILES
POPULATION in the Year 2000
Vermont is the smallest New England State by population and second
smallest to Wyoming among
Did you know that Vermont is
the second largest New England State in area, slightly larger than New
Hampshire but also larger than Massachusetts and double the size of
Although Vermont has a density of 66 persons per square mile, the town
of Winooski has the highest density of 4,720 persons per square mile,
and Somerset is the lowest at less than one person per square mile.
COUNTIES IN VERMONT
Hubbardton is in Rutland County, one of the 14 counties in Vermont.
In 1779, Vermont had two counties.The western side of the state was
called Bennington County and the eastern side was called
In 1781, Cumberland County was broken up
into three counties in Vermont plus another county named Washington
(not the same as the modern Washington County) that eventually
became part of
Today's Washington County was known as
from its creation in 1810 until it was renamed in1814.
More historical detail regarding the
formation of the present day counties is found in:
Rutland County is second in area and
Grand Isle County
Above areas are land only. State
size where water area is included show the following square miles: MA is 44th with 10,555, VT is 45th with 9,615, and NH is 46th with
For more info, see more on
(One of 14 in Vermont)
The map below shows where the
Town of Hubbardton is located in Rutland County. It shares borders
with Castleton to the south, Sunbury to the north, Benson to the west
and Pittsford to the east. It has postal service from five post offices:
NE is from Brandon, NW is from Orwell, SW is from Fair Haven, SE is from
Castleton, and most of State Rt 30 is from the Castleton Post Office
called "Bomoseen" at Castleton Corners. It has no schools, but
owns part of the Elementary School in Castleton. Most of its
students go to High School in Castleton.
POPULATION OF HUBBARDTON AND ITS
|Fair Haven 2650
||West Rutland 224
The three counties in the northeast part of Vermont (Caledonia,
Essex, and Orleans) are referred to as the Northeast Kingdom, a term
coined by George D Aiken.
David Aiken (August
20, 1892 – November 19, 1984) was an American farmer and politician. A
of the Republican
he was the 64th Governor
of Vermont (1937–1941)
before serving in the United
States Senate for
34 years, from 1941 to 1975.
“He liked being called ‘Governor’ because he liked being the governor
more than he liked being the U.S. Senate,” Mrs. Aiken explained. “It
wasn’t that he didn’t like being in the Senate, it was that he didn’t
like being away from Vermont. He never forgot that he was a Vermonter.”
And, she said he never lost touch with the average Vermonter.
Tired from weeks of work, during Senate recesses, she said it wasn’t
uncommon for him to come home to Vermont, grab his fishing pole, and
head to the Northeast Kingdom.
“The Northeast Kingdom was just one of his
favorite places in the world,” Mrs. Aiken said. “He always loved the
people up there. He used to say that many of the people didn’t have much
of anything, or have big jobs, but they were always happy. They didn’t
complain as other people would complain in the same situation. They just
made do with what they had. The people up there didn’t put on “airs” and
they always welcomed you.”
Northeast Kingdom is bordered on the east by the
and on the west by the
The highest point is
Jay Peak, a
summit on the main ridge of the Green Mountains, at 3,858 feet
(1,176 m). The highest point outside of the Green Mountains is East
East Haven, with
a summit elevation of 3,439 feet (1,048 m).
The area is often referred to
by Vermonters simply as "The Kingdom."
The Kingdom encompasses 55 towns and
gores, with a
land area of 2,027 square miles, about 21% of the state of Vermont.The
city of Newport is the only
incorporated city in the tri-county area.
The Northeast Kingdom has been listed in the
North American and international editions of "1,000 Places to See Before
You Die", the New York Times best-selling book by Patricia
Schultz. In 2006, the
National Geographic Society
named the Northeast Kingdom as the most desirable place to visit in the
country and the ninth most desirable place to visit in the world.
The largest municipalities in the Northeast
Kingdom are the towns of
and the city of
Visit the oldest art galley in America
at St. Johnsbury’s Atheneum. Shop at Wiley’s General Store in
Greensboro, an establishment owned and operated by the same family for
Vermont was the fourteenth state to be
admitted to the union. It was admitted in 1791
The first Vermont Flag, a state militia flag, was created
in October, 1803. Vermont's first flag was created with
seventeen stripes and seventeen stars in the tradition of
the U.S. Flag. The word "VERMONT" was spelled out in upper
case letters above the stars and stripes.
Vermont went back to the drawing board and authorized a
new design on October 20, 1838. This new design continued to
align with that of the U.S. Flag. This new design reduced
the number of red and white stripes from seventeen to
thirteen. Instead of a star for each state, however, the
union contained one large white star on a blue field. Within
the confines of the star was displayed the Vermont Coat of
Arms. This flag remained as the official state flag until
Eventually Vermonters began to desire a more unique state
flag that would not be so easily confused with the flag of
the United States when hanging from a pole. As the idea for
a change became more prominent, it was found that the flag
authorized in 1838, was not ever really used to any extent
and that not many were even aware of its existence. The flag
carried by Vermont regiments in the Civil War, the Spanish
American War and at the outbreak of World War I was a flag
that displayed the Vermont State Coat of Arms on a blue
field. This design had customarily been called the
And so, in 1919, the third Vermont State Flag was
authorized. This third design displayed the Vermont State
Coat of Arms on a blue field. This is the Vermont State Flag
as we know it today.
Green Mountain Boys Flag, the militia flag of the Vermont Republic
, and the Vermont state flag from 1791 to 1804.
The second flag of Vermont used from May 1, 1804 to October 19, 1837.
On May 1, 1804, the number of U.S. states rose to seventeen, and it was
expected that the U.S. flag would change to 17 stars and 17 stripes. In
recognition, Vermont adopted what was expected to be the new U.S. flag
with the addition of the name "VERMONT" embroidered along the top. The
U.S. flag did not change in that way, resulting in the Vermont flag
having more stripes than the national flag.
The third flag of Vermont used from October 20, 1837 to May 31, 1923.
This Vermont state flag was the current U.S. flag with the multiple
stars replaced by a single large star with the Vermont coat of arms
(from the seal) within the star. The details of the star were
unspecified, and both 5-point and 8-point stars were used with 8-points
slightly more common. During the American
Civil War, the Spanish
American War, and the First
World War, the Vermont militia fought
under a banner composed of the Coat
of arms of Vermont on
a blue field.
This was essentially the same as the Vermont
Governor’s flag, and very similar to the current state flag.
Because of confusion between the striped Vermont state flag and the U.S.
flag, the design of the Vermont Governor’s flag was adopted as the
official state flag on June 1, 1923.
June 1, 1923 The
coat of arms on
a field of azure.
is the official motto of the U.S. state of Vermont and
the African Nation of Tanzania.
The motto was first adopted in 1788 for use on the Great Seal of the
Vermont Republic. Ira
the Vermont seal and is often credited as its author. Following
Vermont's admission to the federal union in 1791, the legislature once
more approved the use of the motto for the new state seal.
Vermont's first governor, Thomas
cited the state motto in his epitaph: "Out of storm and manifold perils
rose an enduring state, the home of freedom and unity."
US FLAG (1795 - 1818)
Flew over Fort Mc Henry in Baltimore. Official Flag when
house was built in 1806 in Hubbardton (Hortonia) VT
The Star Spangled Banner: This Flag became
the Official United States Flag on May 1st,1795. Two stars were added
for the admission of
(the 14th State on March 4th, 1791) and
(the 15th State on June 1st, 1792, and was to last for 23 years. The
five Presidents who served under this flag were;
George Washington (1789-1797),
John Adams (1797-1801),
Thomas Jefferson (1801-1809),
James Madison (1809-1817),
James Monroe (1817-1825).
The 15-star, 15-stripe flag was authorized by the Flag
Act of January 13, 1794, adding 2 stripes and 2 Stars. The regulation
went into effect on May 1, 1795. This flag was the only U.S. Flag to
have more than 13 stripes. At the time, the
practice of adding stripes (in addition to stars) with the induction of
a new state had not yet been discontinued. It was immortalized in the War of 1812
Francis Scott Key.
In Baltimore's preparation for an
expected attack on the city, Fort McHenry was made ready to
defend the city's harbor. When Major
expressed desire for a very large flag to fly over the fort,
General John S. Stricker and
Commodore Joshua Barney
placed an order with a prominent Baltimorean flagmaker for
two oversized American Flags. The larger of the two flags
would be the Great Garrison Flag, the largest battle flag
ever flown at the time. The smaller of the two flags would
be the Storm Flag, to be more durable and less prone to
fouling in inclement weather. This flag was sewn by
Mary Young Pickersgill.
the commander of Fort McHenry, specified "a flag so large
that the British would have no difficulty seeing it from a
distance". A replica is still flying over Fort
The Flag was flown over the fort
soldiers and a fleet of 19 ships attacked Baltimore on
September 12, 1814. The bombardment turned to Fort McHenry
on the evening of September 13, and continuous shelling
occurred for 25 hours under heavy rain. When the British
ships were unable to pass the fort and penetrate the harbor,
the attack was ended, and on the morning of September 14,
when the battered flag still flew above the ramparts, it was
clear that Fort McHenry remained in American hands. This
revelation was famously captured in poetry by Key, an
American lawyer and amateur poet. Being held by the British
on a truce ship in the
Key observed the battle from afar. When he saw the Garrison
Flag still flying at dawn of the morning of the 14th,
he composed a poem he originally titled Defiance of Ft.
McHenry retitled The Star-Spangled Banner, and a
portion of it would later be adopted as the United States
National Anthem. Since its arrival at the Smithsonian, the
flag has undergone multiple preservation efforts.
1916, President Woodrow Wilson signed an executive order
designating “The Star-Spangled Banner” as the national
anthem, and in 1931, the US Congress confirmed the decision. Although
Key wrote four verses, most people only know the first one.
Entered the Union: March
4, 1791 (14)
State Nicknames: Green
State Motto: Freedom
Origin of Name: from
the French “vert mont,” meaning “green mountain”
State Flower: Red
State Bird: Hermit
State Animal: Morgan
State Tree: Sugar
State Butterfly: Monarch
State Flavor: Maple
State Insect: Honey
State Fruit: Apple
State Fish: Brook
Trout & Walleye Pike
State Pie: Apple
State Song: “These
State Gem: Grossular
National Forests: 1
Famous for: Ski
Resorts, Maple Syrup, Autumn Splendor
Famous Vermonters: Chester
A. Arthur • Calvin Coolidge (Presidents), Orson Bean (actor),
George Dewey (admiral), John Dewey (educator), Stephen A.
Douglas (politician), Carlton Fisk (baseball), Henry Wells
(pioneer entrepreneur - Wells Fargo Co.), Rudy Vallee (band
Many other Symbols of Vermont at:
www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Vermont_state_symbols and www.history.com/topics/us-states/vermont and
The state of
has 255 political units, or "places". This includes 237
Burlington, Rutland, Barre, Montpelier, Winooski, St Albans, Newport
(Avery’s, Buell’s, Warner’s & Warren’s).
towns are those granted charters that the
later revoked due to lack
of residents. While still technically towns,
they have no local government; their affairs are managed by
The town of
Vernon is unique as it was initially part of the grant of "Northfield" located
the Connecticut River. A New Hampshire grant to
both sides of the
Connecticut River resulted in two Hinsdales due to a
change in the
dividing line between the colonies
of NH and MA.
This was resolved in 1753.
Vernon is fascinating
The data below is from ancestry.com
and shows 257 “towns”.
Comment on Town
From Massachusetts, but part was re-granted in 1753
as a NH Grant
1779 Vernon became part of Republic of VT At one
time Vernon was also called Hinsdale
New Hampshire Land Grants
From New York
Royalton, Grand Isle, Bradford, Whitingham
Republic of Vermont
State of Vermont
Flatlanders and Vermonters
Vermont was originally inhabited by the Abenaki and the Iroquois.
2005 it had an estimated population of 623,000. Vermont has the second
Wyoming has fewer people.) Vermont has a larger percentage of its population living
of fewer than 2,500 than any other state, so it is the most
A "Vermonter" is a
term reserved for those people actually born in Vermont. A
not born in Vermont, no matter how long that
person has lived in the state. Flatlanders
are also referred to as
"Turkeys". I will always be a "Buckeye", as I was born in
Ohio and I am a
legal resident of Florida.The opposite of a Flatlander
is a "Woodchuck", a term that is applied,
sometimes with negative connotations, to a native born
I can never be a "Vermonter", as I was not born in
Vermont. A person is a Vermonter because
happened to be in Vermont on the day that person was born. Some
say: "Thank heavens the Flatlanders outnumber the native Vermonters."
Others say "The Road to Hell is paved
http://www.heurtley.com/richard/tshov.html for some
There are appears
to be four classes of people living in Vermont: Class A .are
Vermonters that are
residents, Class B are Vermonters that are non
residents, Class C are Flatlanders that are residents,
and Class D
are Flatlanders that are non residents. Act 60 and Act 68 were
designed so that Class B
and Class D almost always pay higher property
tax rates for education in Vermont. It certainly seems
that non residents should pay higher property tax rates for education.
It is surprising that
has not been amended to provide
relief to Class B.
Vermont made national headlines in
1998. A Flatlander tried to run for Senate under the
Party, and lost. Jack McMullen, a one-year resident of Vermont, tried to
to run against Senator Leahy for Senate.
McMullen, the millionaire, lost
to Fred Tuttle, then a 79 year old
retired farmer. The farmer, with a 10th grade education and a
budget of $201, beat the
Harvard educated McMullen, who spent $475,000
campaign. In the often comical debates,
McMullen was exposed as
an outsider, a person who
know the state he was trying to win
very well. Tuttle asked him in one debate how to
pronounce the Vermont
town of Calais. McMullen answered it by pronouncing it in the French
(cah-lay) instead of how Vermonters say it, (cah-las).
It was clear
McMullen didn't know the state. For what reason did Tuttle win?
The simple fact that
Tuttle is a native Vermonter, and McMullen a
flatlander. McMullen tried to buy his way through the
Vermonters saw through his ideas. When voting time came, Tuttle won 55%
the primary vote, and putting the farmer into a Senatorial race.
Tuttle's win sent a message
nationwide, Vermonters would not be bought
over by a flatlander, and would much rather have a
retired farmer in the
senate. Surprised bythe win, Tuttle laughed and lamented he would never
want to move to Washington, D.C. so he urged Vermonters to vote
for Leahy. Tuttle's job was
done, and he could go back to his farm.
knew how many teats a cow has! McMullen didn't.
http://web.archive.org/web/20081002034033 and /http://www.vtonly.com/loresep8.htm and
Tuttle would have known how robotic milking works.
SOME VERMONT FACTS See
14th in union
2 U.S. Presidents
43rd largest state-9,614 square miles
65.8 people per square mile of land
1.24 million acres of farmland
78% of Vermont’s land is forest
State Animal: Morgan Horse
State Beverage: Milk State Motto: “Freedom and Unity” State Pie: Apple
State Butterfly: Monarch State Flower: Red Clover State Tree: Sugar
Montpelier, with 7,900 people, is the smallest state capital in America
It is also the only state capital in the United States without a
Vermont is one of four states that does not allow billboard advertising
16 awesome ski resorts, one of the largest number per state in the
Vermont has more covered bridges per square mile than any other state
Currently, the three most popular Ben and Jerry’s ice cream flavors are:
Cherry Garcia, Chocolate Chip Cookie Dough, Chocolate Fudge Brownie
Dairy farmers produce 300 million gallons of milk each year
Vermont is also the country’s largest producer of maple syrup
Vermont’s highest peak, Mt. Mansfield, is 4,393 ft. tall
Vermont’s 77th governor Jim Douglas
CHESTER A ARTHUR 21st President
was born in Vermont
Chester Alan Arthur (October 5, 1829 –
November 18, 1886) was an American attorney and politician
who served as the
President of the United
(1881–85); he succeeded
James A. Garfield
Arthur was born in
grew up in
upstate New York,
and practiced law in New York City. He served as
New York Militia
American Civil War.
Following the war, he devoted more time to Republican
politics and quickly rose in the political machine run by
New York Senator
Appointed by President
Ulysses S. Grant
to the lucrative and politically powerful post of
Collector of the Port of
New York in
1871, Arthur was an important supporter of Conkling and the
faction of the Republican Party. In 1878 the new president,
Rutherford B. Hayes,
fired Arthur as part of a plan to reform the federal
in New York. When Garfield won the Republican nomination for
Arthur, an eastern Stalwart, was nominated for
balance the ticket.
After just half a year
as vice president, Arthur found himself in the
due to the assassination of his predecessor. To the surprise
of reformers, Arthur took up the cause of reform, though it
had once led to his expulsion from office.
Suffering from poor
health, Arthur made only a limited effort to secure the
Republican Party's nomination in
he retired at the close of his term. Journalist
later wrote, "No man ever entered the Presidency so
profoundly and widely distrusted as Chester Alan Arthur, and
no one ever retired ... more generally respected, alike by
political friend and foe."
wrote of him, "[I]t would be hard indeed to better President
CALVIN COOLIDGE 30th President
was born in Vermont See
“Silent Cal” did have a sense of humor:
matron, seated next to him at a dinner, said to him, "I made a bet today
that I could get more than two words out of you." He replied, "You
upon learning that Coolidge had died, reportedly remarked, "How can they
Coolidge often seemed uncomfortable among fashionable Washington
society; when asked why he continued to attend so many of their dinner
parties, he replied, "Got to eat somewhere."
Alice Roosevelt Longworth,
a leading Republican wit, underscored Coolidge's silence and his dour
personality: "When he wished he were elsewhere, he pursed his lips,
folded his arms, and said nothing. He looked then precisely as though he
had been weaned on a pickle."
joke about Calvin Coolidge when he was President … The President and
Mrs. Coolidge were being shown (separately) around an experimental
government farm. When Mrs. Coolidge came to the chicken yard she noticed
that a rooster was mating very frequently. She asked the attendant how
often that happened and was told, "Dozens of times each day." Mrs.
Coolidge said, "Tell that to the President when he comes by." Upon being
told, the President asked, "Same hen every time?" The reply was, "Oh,
no, Mr. President, a different hen every time." President: "Tell that to
US Presidents There were the
above two presidents from Vermont, but Ohio and Virginia had the most,
which one had the most is debatable.
||Governor of VT
||Governor of VT and US Senator from VT
|Chester Alan Arthur
|| 21st U.S. President
||30th U.S. President
||Inventor of "The plow that broke the
|John Dewey ,
||Philosopher and educational reformer
|Stephen A. Douglas
||US Senator, elected in Illinois
||Clergyman and educator
|Ralph E. Flanders
||US Senator from VT
|Richard Morris Hunt
|William Morris Hunt
||US Senator and US Representative from VT
||US Senator from VT
||US Senator from VT
|Elisha Graves Otis
||Founder of Otis Elevator Company
||Founder of Latter Day Saint movement,
|Horace A. Tabor
||Actor and writer
|| Bellows Falls
||Singer and band leader
|| Island Pond
||Pioneer and entrepreneur
|William G Wilson
||Founder of Alcoholics Anonymous
|| East Dorset
|| President, Church of Jesus Christ of Latter
||Surveyor. Impetuous Leader of The Green Mountain
|| Litchfield, CT
||Surveyor. Legislator. Father of University of
||Governor of the Republic of VT and then the State of
|| East Guilford, CT
||Physician. Governor of VT
|| East Hampton, NY
||Poet who lived in NH and in VT
|| San Francisco, CA
||Witch of Wall Street. The wealthiest woman in the
|Madeleine M Kunin
||Diplomat and politician. Governor of VT
|| Zurich, Swiss
US Senator from VT
|| Brooklyn, NY
Major General in Continental Army and Hero of
Bennington "There are your enemies, the Red Coats and the Tories. They are ours,
or this night Molly Stark sleeps a widow!" and a quote from a
July 31, 1809 letter that 81 year old Stark wrote to decline an
invitation to an anniversary reunion of the
Battle of Bennington:
"Live free or die: Death is not the worst of evils."
||Colonel in Continental Army.
Rear Guard Commander at Hubbardton
| Roxbury, CT
George II's Royal Governor of New Hampshire
|| Portsmouth, NH
1777, the signers of the Constitution
of the Vermont Republic met
a tavern at the time, to declare independence from the British Empire
not become a state until 1791). In 1820, it was the state's largest
town, a thriving center for trade and agriculture.
The community is named for Windsor, Connecticut.
is known as the birthplace of Vermont, where the state constitution was
signed, and acted as the first capital until 1805 when Montpelier became
the official state capital.
not always the capital of Vermont. At first, the Vermont General
Assembly met only once every two years. Many of the first meetings were
held in Windsor, Bennington, Rutland, and other towns.
The first permanent settlement began in May 1787,
when Colonel Jacob Davis and General Parley Davis arrived from
General Davis surveyed the land, while Colonel Davis cleared forest and
erected a large log house on the west side of the North Branch of the
It was Colonel Davis who selected the name
Montpelier after the
was a general enthusiasm for things French as a result of the country's
aid during the
Montpelier is situated on the Winooski River in the central part of the
state. It is the smallest population of any capital city in the United
The population was 7,855 at the 2010
Montpelier was chosen to become the permanent state capital in 1805,
after some strenuous debate, due to its central location.
When the time came to build a new capitol in
1831, the citizens of Montpelier pledged $15,000 to support its
construction, preventing the state government from being transferred to
any of the other five competing cities.
When the second capitol burned
down in 1857, there was considerable support for moving the capital to Burlington,
but Montpelier carried the day. The third Vermont Statehouse, which
still stands, was 25 percent larger than the one it replaced, but still
modest by the standards of other states.
"Montpelier" can be translated to be "bare hill".
The hill behind the capitol building was bare of trees.
Based on the 2010 census, 115,085 people resided
in Vermont's cities, or 18.39% of the state's population. The
Vermont has 255
or "places". Of these, the nine listed below are incorporated as
cities, and considered municipalities independent of the surrounding
town(s) and county(s).
Here is another list:
St. Albans City
St. Albans Town
About 25% of Vermont's population reside in Chittenden County.
Burlington is the largest city in Vermont.
The city is the hub of the Burlington-South
consisting of the three northwestern Vermont counties of Chittenden, Franklin and Grand
encompassing the cities of Burlington, South
the towns of
and the village of Essex
According to the 2012 U.S.
the metro area had an estimated population of 213,701, approximately one
third of Vermont's total population.
One of the New
the land that was developed as Burlington was awarded by Governor Benning
June 7, 1763 to Samuel Willis and 63 others.
The town was organized in
1785. The town's position on Lake
it develop into a port
of entry and
center for trade, particularly after completion of the Champlain
1823, the Erie
1825, and the Chambly
The town was originally granted in 1761 by
as one of the
New Hampshire Grants.
He named it after
John Manners, 3rd Duke of Rutland.
The Original Town of Rutland was chartered in 1761 and was later divided
into; the Town of Proctor, the Town of West Rutland and the City of
The first settlers arrived in 1770 led by Colonel James Mead. James Meade, Rutland's first
settler arrived in Center Rutland in 1769. . The next year,
he and his family were given shelter by members of the Caughnawag Tribe
while they finished their log cabin. Meade built saw and gristmills on
the falls (Meade's Falls) and ran a ferry on the Otter Creek. He was an
ardent defender of the New Hampshire Grants and served as a Colonel in
the militia. Mead's falls was an important military site. The 1759 Crown
Point Military Road ran by here. General Arthur St. Clair wrote his
report after the Battle of Hubbardton in 1777 at Mead's home on the West
Fort Ranger was built in 1778 on the bluff
northeast of the falls. The
first commander was Captain Gideon Brownson. During the
American Revolutionary war
were stationed there. Whitcomb's Rangers
were authorized on October 15, 1776, and formed in November 1776 at
New York. The
unit consisted of two companies of
service with the
under the command of
a veteran of
They saw action at the
Battle of Hubbardton,
Battle of Bennington
Battle of Saratoga.
They were disbanded on January 1, 1781 at
Coos, New Hampshire.
During the early 1800’s the Rutland area was known for agriculture and
for the sheep industry. By the mid 1800’s the development of the marble
industry and the arrival of the railroads created an industrial and
retail boom which brought many immigrant workers to the Rutland area.
Rutland has continued to grow in industry and population to become the
largest city in Southern Vermont.
Fort Rutland (above) (1775-1775) - A small
Fort established in 1775 in present day Rutland in Rutland County,
Vermont. One small building used for storage of ammunition and
supplies inside the stockade. Abandoned in 1775. Located at the park in
downtown Rutland on the SW corner of Rt 7 and West Street. There
is a stone site marker at the intersection of Terrill ST. and North Main
St. in Rutland.
OTHER FORTS IN VERMONT See
Fort Warren After the loss
of Fort Ticonderoga and Mount Independence in July 1777, Fort Warren was
built and became a part of a string of forts built across the state for
the defense of Vermont. It was located in Castleton from 1777 to 1779.
Fort Warren was located one-half
mile east of Castleton village, on a natural plateau, with an area of
less than three acres. This plateau is about fifteen feet higher than
the surrounding meadow in a bend on the north side of Bird's Creek, or
Castleton River, and immediately north of the highway leading through
Castleton to Rutland, about twenty rods west of the mouth of Mead's
Brook, now commonly called Hubbardton Brook. This plateau was connected
with a plain to the north, of many acres in extent, by a narrow neck of
land on the same level. When the Rutland and Washington Railroad was
being built in 1850 this neck of land was dug away to make the dump
across the meadow west. A strip of this plateau, thirty or forty feet
wide on the north side, and about one-half of the west end of it, were
also dug away, for the same purpose, to the depth of eight or ten feet.
On the north side of the railroad, and parallel with it, a new channel
was cut by the company, at the same time, and Hubbardton Brook was
turned into it, which saved building a railroad bridge across the old
channel, but necessitated building a bridge for the public travel across
the new channel in line of the Hubbardton Road, which crossed the old
fort ground. The general features of this old landmark have thus been
materially changed; only about one-half of the original plateau, at the
east end, is now left as it was in the Revolutionary period.
fort was built on land owned by George FOOT on the east and Peter
COGSWELL on the west. The stockade enclosed the dwellings of both these
men. The entire ground is now owned by John J. LANGDON, and his
dwelling-house stands near the eastern boundary of the stockade.
of Roads. Also see
The first roads in Vermont were Military Roads. In 1759,
the British constructed Vermont's first interstate highway, the Crown Point
Road. It was built during the French and Indian War when General
Jeffrey Amherst, wished to continue his campaign into Canada. Native Americans
had followed the waterways leading from Canada to the coast. One of the
most-traveled routes connected Lake Champlain and the Connecticut River
following Otter Creek and the Black River. This footpath led from Amherst’s
strategic position at Crown Point, New York directly to an important military
post, Fort No. 4 on the Connecticut River.
STAGECOACHES (in Castleton, Sudbury, Hubbardton and
|Hezekiah Barnes built
Stagecoach Inn in
Barnes had moved with his family to Charlotte
in 1780, and established the inn and a
on opposite sides of the main stage route from
Town residents referred to as the Tavern Stand.
It was dismantled and rebuilt at the Shelburne Museum in
Shelburne Museum reassembled
Stagecoach Inn on the grounds in 1949.
Contractors removed the dividing walls in the second-story ballroom,
returning it to its former dimensions; ebuilt ten fireplaces, two brick
ovens, and two ham-smoking chambers; applied paneling and plaster
finishes found in New England in the late 18th century; and fashioned
replacement window casings and chair rails with antique carpenter’s
Finally, they reconstructed the broad porch that had originally
wrapped around the building’s exterior to re-create the Inn’s early
Averill Stand in Wilmington was built in 1787 and was
for many years the stagecoach stop between Bennington and
Brattleboro on what is now Route 9. The Averill family
managed the stagecoach stand on the site hence the name
Averill Stand as well as the tavern and Inn.
|The Henry Farm Inn, in Chester
is a center hall Federal built in the late 1700's, is located
on the Green Mountain Turnpike.
Our well-maintained two hundred year old
farmhouse was the first tavern in Chester, when it served as a
stagecoach stop on the Green Mountain Turnpike. In colonial times
this turnpike ran from Boston to Montreal, but now is a quiet,
picturesque dirt road
|The Norwich Inn
is a historic, full-service Vermont country inn located in Norwich, near
Dartmouth College, just across the river from Hanover, New Hampshire. An Inn has
been on the Main Street site since 1797; the current Victorian Structure since
1890. . Built by Colonel Jasper Murdock in 1797, the historic Norwich Inn served
as a stagecoach tavern and hostelry for generations of New England travelers.
Known variously as the Norwich Hotel, Curtis Hotel, The Union House, and the
Newton Inn. Local legend has it that the Inn and the Town were the
inspiration behind the popular TV Show, “Newhart,” which was set in Norwich.
Pictures below from
|Ye Olde Tavern in Manchester claims to be the oldest inn in
Vermont. Built by Dorset, Vermont master builder Aaron Sheldon. It
dates back to 1790 when it was known as the Stage coach Inn.
It later was known as Lockwood's Tavern. The marble porch was
added in 1850. In 1860, Steven Thayer purchased the inn and
was known as "Thayer's Hotel". In 1902, it was the Fairview Hotel and
the tavern became headquarters for the movement to license the sale of
"spirituous beverages". Two years later, revocation of the license
closed the hotel. After the installation of electricity in 1924, Walter
Clemons-McGuire re-opened the tavern as a hotel and antique shop.
It’s on the Vermont Register of Historic Places.
In 1796, The Dorset Inn in Dorset welcomed
its first guests - travelers en route to the major markets in Boston and
Albany. After tethering their horses at the Inn's front door, they would
pass an evening before the fireplace of the Inn, eat a hearty supper and
retire to the four poster bed.
was first first called the Washington Hotel.
The Dorset Inn, shown below when it was
photographed in 1895.
The Grafton Inn
in Grafton is one of the oldest operating inns in America.
its doors in 1801 when Enos Lovell, converted his two-story private
home into an inn in 1801.
Grafton Inn is the center of town activity.
welcomed luminaries like Ralph Waldo Emerson, Rudyard Kipling, Daniel
Webster, Theodore Roosevelt and Woodrow Wilson.
Was the Grafton
Inn and other Inns ... stagecoach
The Hubbardton Turnpike Company was
chartered on November 11, 1802. It allowed immigrants to go north from
Castleton to Sudbury. The turnpike continued in business until November
1851 when its charter was repealed. This became the present Route 30,
and went past the Hyde Manor property in Sudbury and along the east side
of Lake Bomoseen and Beebe Pond in Hubbardton. Prior to the building of
this turnpike, the only north south road along Beebe Pond was a
stagecoach road along the west side of Beebe Pond.
Old Stagecoach Inn in Waterbury.
was built in 1826
by Waterbury’s first lawyer, later Judge, Dan Carpenter, and his brother
The inn, or tavern, served as a
rest stop for people and horses and as a local meeting house. The
railroad across the state had not yet been built, so travel in both
directions was by horse-drawn coach over rutted roads, icy and snow
covered in winter, and a bottomless sea of mud in the spring.
time, Main Street (now Route 2) was known as the Winooski Toll Road, a
forerunner of revenue raising practices to come. In 1848 the railroad
came through, so that stage coach travel survived only in the
Between 1830 & 1845 Dewey's Stand was a stage coach
stop on Rt 30 in Hubbardton. Read about Joel Beaman of Poultney, Ebenezer B Dewey of Hubbardton
and Castleton, and Arunah Hyde of Castleton in
"stage" originally referred to the distance between stations on a route,
the coach traveling the entire route in "stages," but through useage,
"stage" came to mean the coach.
A fresh set of horses would be staged at
the next station, so the coach could continue after a quick stop to rehitch the new horse team. Under this staging system, the resting,
watering and feeding of the spent horses would not delay the coach.
The Old Inn in Sudbury. It was also known as
It served as a stage coach
stop and hotel through the 1850's.
It was located on
the northeast corner of Rt 30 and Rt 73.
In New York we
VERMONT IS ONE OF THE 13 STATES THAT SHARES A BORDER WITH CANADA
Vermont shares a national border of 90 miles with Quebec,
Montreal, Canada's 2nd largest city is only
75 miles from Burlington, Vermont.
or "City of Mary", it
is named after Mount
triple-peaked hill in the heart of the city. The city is on the
Island of Montreal,
In 2011 the city had a population of 1,649,519. Current estimates place the
metropolitan area of Montreal at 4.1 million.
Don published a 200 page book titled History of Hubbardton
Vermont in October 2005. He sold 100 copies in 10 days, ordered
130 more and sold 50 by Christmas 2005. He reprinted 260 copies of
book in July 2007.
(Use 50% size)
Inside of Back Cover
History of Sudbury
Don had his second history book printed in September 2011. The new
book is "History of Sudbury Vermont". Here is the
Front Cover (Sudbury Meeting House)
Cover (Hill School) and
Read about Cecile Preseau and
constructed from lumber from the Dining Hall at Canp Awanee on
Beebe Pond. Visit Trevin Farm on Willowbrook Road. You will love their
wonderful purebred Nubian goats.
History of Rutland
Rutland is the largest city near Beebe Pond in Hubbardton
and the 2nd largest in the state. Read about its history at
http://www.rutlandhistory.com/hist_rutland.asp and read about the Rutland
Historical Society at
Rutland Hospital is the nearest hospital to
Hubbardton. Read about
You know you're from northern Vermont when:
You've taken your kids trick-or-treating during a blizzard.
You only own three spices- salt, pepper and ketchup.
You design your Halloween costumes to fit over a snowsuit.
You have more miles on your snowblower than your car.
You have 10 favorite recipes for venison.
The local Hardware store on any Saturday is busier than the toy
stores at Christmas.
Driving is better in the winter because the potholes get filled
You think everyone from the city has an accent.
You think sexy lingerie is tube socks and a flannel nightie with
only 8 buttons.
You owe more money on your snowmobile than your car.
The local paper covers national and international headlines on
l/4 page, but requires 6 pages for sports.
At least twice a year, the kitchen doubles as a meat processing
Your snow-blower gets stuck on the roof.
You think the start of deer hunting season is a national
You frequently clean grease off your barbecue so the bears won't
prowl on your deck.
You know which leaves make good toilet paper.
The town officials greet you on the street by your first name.
The major parish fundraiser isn't bingo- its sausage making.
You find -20F a little chilly.
The trunk of your car doubles as a deep freezer.
You attended a formal event in your best clothes, your finest
jewelry and your snowmobile boots.
The municipality buys a zamboni before a bus.
||Troy and North Bennington
||Enosburg Falls and Fletcher
||Shoreham and Lincoln
||Killington and Ludlow Village
||Morgan and Readsboro
||Barton Village and St. George
||Roxbury and Waterville
||Reading and Derby Line
||Westfield and Brookline
||Kirby and Alburgh Village
||Hyde Park Village
||Andover and Waltham
||Isle La Motte
||East Haven and Westminster Village
||Baltimore and Guildhall
||Landgrove and Norton